Objectives: We analyzed 2009 survey of the Turkish Adult Risk Factor (TARF) Study to assess the distribution of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in urban and rural areas and sex-specific coronary mortality in the age-bracket of 45 to 74 years. Study design: The Marmara and Middle East regions have been surveyed every odd year in the TARF Study. In 2009, 1,655 participants were surveyed. Information on the mode of death was obtained from first-degree relatives and/or health personnel of local heath office; 960 participants underwent physical examination and ECG recording, and 572 subjects were evaluated on the basis of information obtained regarding health status. Results: In the survey, 23 men and 20 women were ascertained to have died. Twenty-one deaths were attributed to coronary disease and four deaths to cerebrovascular events. Assessment of the entire cohort in the age bracket of 45-74 years after a 19-year follow-up disclosed a high coronary mortality with 7.5 per 1000 person-years in men and 3.9 in women. In a Cox regression analysis comprising 405 deaths (235 cardiovascular) and over 24,000 person-year follow-up, age-adjusted cardiovascular mortality was similar in rural and urban participants. All-cause mortality was higher in females living in urban areas than those living in rural areas (HR 1.41; 95% CI 1.02-1.96). Conclusion: Cardiovascular mortality both in absolute terms and as a share of overall mortality persists to be high among Turkish adults, with similar rates in urban and rural areas. Age-adjusted all-cause mortality rate is higher among urban versus rural women.