A sediment core covering the Late Holocene from Lake Aktas, a shallow alkaline soda lake in Ardahan in the Northeast Anatolian highland of Turkey, was studied for pollen analysis to reconstruct climate and vegetation characteristics of this region. In the fossil pollen diagram of this core, the pollen variety of herbaceous plants was higher than that of arboreal plants. Pollen concentration data of the uppermost zone of the fossil pollen diagram show that the herbaceous plant species dominate around Lake Aktas. Poaceae and Juglans pollen grains in the upper zones (especially at LPAZ2) indicate that the cultivation for agriculture and commercial purposes was carried out much in this period. The decline of the pollen concentrations of Pinus and Picea towards the upper zones is a sign of deforestation. Looking at the last 685 years in the study area, it can be said that steppe vegetation is more dominant in the field.