in: Handbook of Research on the Applications of International Transportation and Logistics for World Trade,, Gökçe Çiçek Ceyhun, Editor, IGI Global, Pennsylvania, pp.288-309, 2020
Chemical and industrial chemical substances are used in every area of industry. Much of these chemicals are transported from one country to another by ships. Most of these ships are container ships and chemical tankers. Chemical tankers are included in international logistics because they carry large amounts of different cargoes. Moving more suitable and larger amounts of cargo from one port to another plays a role in the provision of trade. The transport of chemical loads generally takes place in 4 stages with different ship types. These stages are tank preparation, loading, transportation, and discharging. This chapter explains these steps.