in: Mesane: Yapısı, işlevi ve klinik yönleri, Nikoline J. Mikkelsen, Editor, NOVA Science Publishers Inc. , New-York, pp.17-82, 2020
More than 90% of bladder cancers are urothelial carcinomas; the remaining are squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Approximately 75% of urothelial carcinomas are non-muscle invasive bladder cancers. Although 70 to 80% of these tend to be recurrent, the majority of the BC’s are non-muscle invasive, nevertheless 20-30% become invasive.
Several studies had been conducted on epidemiology and risk factors in bladder cancer. It is the fourth most common cancer in the USA and eighth most common among women worldwide. The incidence of bladder cancer has increased over the last 60-70 years. The inclination is particularly high in less developed countries where exposure to industrial byproducts leads to carcinogenic transformation.
Transurethral resection (TUR) of bladder tumors is a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. It is performed to determine the type and extent of the disease and to resect all macroscopically visible superficial and, if possible, invasive tumors. Transurethral resection should also provide appropriate specimens for pathological evaluation of the tumor grade and stage (depth of tumor invasion). The grade and stage of the tumor are very important as they guide the treatment and effect the prognosis. A complete staging of the disease is vital. Treatment modality is determined after the staging procedure is complete. Treatment options differ in non- muscle-invasive tumors and in muscle-invasive tumors.