The emissions from the industry are primarily Volatile
Organic Compounds (VOC) and organic Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP). Printing
inks, varnishes, lacquer, dampening solutions and flushing solvents used in the
printing industry also include Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) and Volatile
Organic Compounds (VOCs) such as ethanol, methyl, acetate, ethyl acetate,
isopropanol, n-propanol, hexane, benzene, toluene, xylene, isopropyl acetate,
propyl acetate, dimethyl ketone, glycols and glycol ether. (Özçelik, 2006). These
solvents and organic compounds evaporate during the production process or
contribute to the photochemical reaction. Most of these solvents and organic
compounds used in printing environment contain at least one carbon and hydrogen
atom and have negative effects on health and environment. (Khan & Ghoshal, 2000).
The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and heavy metals in ink can lead to soil and even water pollution when left in landfill (Capital Business System, 2019). VOC vapours contribute to the increase of air pollution. Photochemical smog which is a chemical reaction in the atmosphere among the sunlight, nitrogen oxides and VOCs causes air particles and ground-level ozone emission. It can damage leafy plants, irritates the respiratory system and causes a mist layer view upon the earth.
In this study, the environmental impacts and risks of inks and solvents used in the printing industry have been evaluated. Measures to be taken to reduce and manage these environmental effects and risks have been addressed and recommended have been made.