Chylothorax and chylous a scites are very rare clinical entities generally caused by obstruction and disruption of the thoracic duct. A 60-year-old man presented with exertional dyspnea, fatigue, and chest discomfort of 18-month history. Physical examination revealed S4, bilateral pretibial edema, and moderate amount of ascites. Computed tomography and X-ray of the thorax showed left-sided pleural effusion. Abdominal imaging showed normal liver and spleen structure with intraperitoneal effusion and periportal edema. Thoracentesis and paracentesis yielded a milky, lipemic fluid of exudative nature. Biochemical analysis of the fluids showed a high triglyceride content and elevated lymphocyte count, typical of chylous fluid. All laboratory analyses for possible etiologies including neoplasms, tuberculosis, and cirrhosis were negative. Positron-emission tomography did not show any pathological uptake. Transthoracic echocardiographic examination showed bilateral atrial enlargement, left ventricular hypertrophy, anteroseptal hypokinesia and akinesia, and moderate mitral and tricuspid regurgitation, with an ejection fraction of 25%. Coronary arteries were normal on angiography. The patient was diagnosed with severe congestive heart failure accompanied by chylothorax and chylous ascites. Despite appropriate treatment, there was little change in congestion and no change in symptoms. He died during ultrafiltration therapy due to hemodynamic collapse and asystole. © 2011 Turkish Society of Cardiology.