Effect of time-activity patterns and microenvironments on the personal exposure of undergraduate students to black carbon

Uzun B., Onat B., Ayvaz C., Akin O., Sahin Ü.

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT, vol.194, no.9, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 194 Issue: 9
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10661-022-10223-4
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, ABI/INFORM, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Compendex, EMBASE, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Geobase, Greenfile, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Public Affairs Index, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Black carbon, Personal exposure, Inhaled dose, Time-activity patterns, Contribution, Undergraduate students, PARTICULATE MATTER, SIZE DISTRIBUTION, FINE PARTICULATE, AIR-POLLUTION, ULTRAFINE PARTICLES, PM2.5, POLLUTANTS, TRANSPORT, CHILDREN, BC
  • Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa Affiliated: Yes


In this study, the personal exposure to and potential dose of black carbon (BC) of undergraduate students (22-27 years old, nonsmokers) were determined. BC was continuously measured by a portable device (microAeth (R) AE51) for four consecutive days in Istanbul between April and May 2019. The time-activity diaries filled out by each volunteer were assessed to define the activities and microenvironments (home, school, transportation and entertainment) that contributed to daily BC exposure. The overall mean concentration of BC was 2.0 mu g/m(3), and the mean concentrations on weekdays and weekends were 3.0 mu g/m(3) and 1.1 mu g/m(3), respectively. Transportation made the highest contribution to mean BC exposure (42%) and dose (45.8%) on weekdays, while the contributions of home-based activities to BC exposure (66.1%) and dose (63.2%) were higher on weekends. Students had the most intense exposure to (2.8% and 4.6%) and dose (3.1% and 5.8%) of BC in transportation both on weekdays and on weekends, respectively. Between transportation modes, the mean BC concentration was the highest for minibuses (14.8 mu g/m(3)), while walking made the largest contribution to BC exposure (16.8%) on weekdays. Students spent 12.8% of their weekdays at school, and the contributions of the school environment to BC exposure and dose were 8.5% and 7%, respectively. Exposure to BC increased during cooking and eating activities in microenvironments such as the kitchen, cafe and dining hall.