An environmentally extended global multi-regional input-output analysis of consumption-based and embodied import-based carbon emissions of Turkey


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Mangir N., ALVER ŞAHİN Ü.

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, vol.29, no.36, pp.54813-54826, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 29 Issue: 36
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11356-022-19290-z
  • Journal Name: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, IBZ Online, ABI/INFORM, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Environment Index, Geobase, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.54813-54826
  • Keywords: EEIO, CBA, Turkey, Eora26, Greenhouse gas emissions, GREENHOUSE-GAS EMISSIONS, CO2 EMISSIONS, INTERNATIONAL-TRADE, ELECTRICITY-GENERATION, MRIO DATABASES, SUPPLY CHAINS, GHG EMISSIONS, FOOTPRINT, SECTOR, ENERGY
  • Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Understanding the consumption-based accounting (CBA), production-based accounting (PBA), and emissions embodied in trade is an important prerequisite for designing climate mitigation policies. Environmentally extended input-output (EEIO) models have been developed to evaluate the linkages between economic activities and environmental impacts as well as the embodied emissions in goods and services that are traded between countries. In this study, an environmentally extended global multi-regional input-output (EE GMRIO) analysis is performed to calculate Turkey's CBA emissions and import-based embodied emissions for the year 2015 using the Eora26 database, which is a simplified version of the Eora database adapted to 26 economic sectors. The key sectors and sectoral carbon intensities of countries are determined in terms of embodied emissions in imports for household consumption. Our results indicate that Turkey was a net importer of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2015 and about 10% of total emissions of the final consumption in Turkey have occurred in other countries. The dominant contributing sectors to a nation's GHG emissions can be quite different for the CBA and PBA approaches and the efforts to reduce GHG emissions requires a holistic approach. Import-based household emissions are assessed in terms of countries, sector and GHG intensities. Our results indicate that Turkey was a net importer of GHG emissions in 2015 with its approximately 10% of the total and 7.7% of household final consumption emissions having occurred in other countries. This also suggests that imported goods and services for household consumption have been produced in those countries with relatively low emission intensities. Considering Turkey's emissions reduction targets, these results provide methodological benefits that will enhance national efforts by giving invaluable inputs about the emission intensity of imported and exported goods and better guidance to policy makers about future strategies for low-carbon manufacturing and shifting consumption patterns.