Introduction: Premature ovarian failure (also known as premature menopause) is defined as menopause before the age of 40. It can be "natural" or "iatrogenic" such as after bilateral oophorectomy. It may be either primary or secondary. In the majority of cases of primary POF the cause is unknown. Chromosome abnormalities (especially X chromosome), follicle-stimulating hormone receptor gene polymorphisms, inhibin B mutations, enzyme deficiencies and autoimmune disease may be involved. Secondary POF is becoming more important as survival after treatment of malignancy through surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy continues to improve.