August
2022

Our Tübitak 1001 Project has been accepted

Our project titled "WR-PNSD-IST:  Investigation of particulate matter process and air pollution source apportionment in urban area using wide range particulate matter size distribution (10 nm – 30 µm): Istanbul." has been accepted by Tübitak 1001. 

Summary

 

Istanbul is one of the major metropolis in the world and Turkey with more than 15 million inhibitants and providing road through motorway, maritime and air transportation between Asia and Europe. These activities as being different types of pollution sources cause a complex air pollution profile across the province. The daily average PM10 concentrations measured have been exceeding the limit value of the Europe (50 µg/m3), which is accepted as the national air quality limit in Turkey, at many locations of Istanbul. Although PM2.5 concentrations are measured at some stations, exceeding the limit value of the Europe and World Health Organization (20 and 5 µg/m3) and national limit value is not defined yet. The studies conducted in the world reported that the numerical concentration of the particulate matter instead mass concentration should be emphasized due to its effect on human health and on climate change. It is stated that particles below 1 µm size have a significant proportion of the inhaled particles and ultra fine particles (UFP) constitute more than 80 % of the total number of particles. It is clear that particle reduction strategies should be focused on the number of the particle rather than it’s mass and that the sources should be identified. Presently, a limited number of studies have been conducting in Turkey as in the world related to the particle source analysis using chemical components of particles because of its requirement a large number of sampling and high cost analysis. Furthermore, it is necessary to spend separate time for sampling, separate time for analysis and staff work. For these reasons and due to the fact that it can’t provide a high time resolution (hourly) results, recently particle number size distribution (PNSD) data from nanometers to 10 micrometers measured every one minute intervals have been using widely in source analysis in the world. However, there is no study in this scope in Turkey yet, and the formation mechanisms and sources of nanoparticles are not known. In this study, wide range (from 10 nm to 30 µm) particle number (PN) will be measured by two different equipment (SMPS and GRIMM) at the urban, traffic and urban background site of Istanbul. PN data measured two different methods will be merged with a special statistical method and a wide range of particle size distribution will be obtained. Proportional changes of different particle modes in the total number of particles will be examined and new particle formation (NPF) mechanisms and contribution will be defined. Source profile using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) will be determine using PNSD data with the main air pollutants parameters (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO, NO2, CO and O3) and black carbon (BC), from the previous project, which will be measuring simultaneously at the stations. Identifying the sources profiles of air pollutants and ensuring the continuity of this process is the most important work to be done for urban air pollution management.